Software Exercise 3.1: Create an Apptainer Definition File¶
Objective: Describe each major section of an Apptainer Definition file.
Why learn this?: When building your own containers, it is helpful to understand the basic options and syntax of the "build" or definition file.
Where to start¶
A custom container always is always built on an existing container. It is common to use a container on Docker Hub. These lines tell Apptainer to pull the pre-existing image from Docker Hub, and to use it as the base for the container that will be built using this definition file.
When choosing a base container, try to find one that has most of what you need - for example, if you want to install R packages, try to find a container that already has R installed.
Files needed for building or running¶
If you need specific files for the installation (like source code) or
for the job to execute (like small data files or scripts), they can be
copied into the container under the
%files section. The first item on a line
is what to copy (from your computer) and the optional second item is where it
should be copied in the container.
Normally the files being copied are in your local working directory where you run the build command.
Commands to install¶
apt-get update -y
apt-get install -y \
This is where most of the installation happens. You can use any shell command here
that will work in the base container to install software. These commands might include:
- Linux installation tools like
- Scripting specific installers like
- Shell commands like
Different distributions of Linux often have distinct sets of tools for installing software. The installers for various common Linux distributions are listed below: Ubuntu: apt or apt-get Debian: deb CentOS: yum
A web search for “install X on Y Linux” is usually a good start for common software installation tasks. [^1]
When installing to a custom location, do not install to a
home directory. This is
likely to get overwritten when the container is run. Instead,
/opt is the best
directory for custom installations.
To set environment variables (especially useful for software in a custom location),
%environment section of the definition file.
[^1]: This text and previous list taken from Introduction to Docker